The Philosophy Family Tree [see update for new link] is a collectively edited “genealogy” of philosophers that maps the dissertation advisor – advisee relationship (the “parent” is the dissertation advisor). It was started about a decade ago by Josh Dever, and has grown quite a bit since then. It’s a fun and useful resource, and would be even better if you took a moment to enter in your information, or that of your advisor or advisees—or, as some have done, arranged for a member of their department’s administrative staff to collect and enter the data. See the “about” page for instructions. (Thanks to Michael Smith for reminding me of this site.)
I found some lineages going back to the early 1300s. Are there ones that go further?
UPDATE (2/21/21): The original site appears to be no longer, but there is a philosophy family tree site here.
(art: photo of light sculpture Forms in Nature by Hilden & Diaz)